The 4-[(1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-3(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidiny) benzene sulphonamide and its derivatives have also been evaluated for anti-HCV activity and have shown inhibitory effects. of HCV life cycle and discuss their potential use in HCV therapy. family and has a positive single stranded RNA genome of 9.6 Kb. The genome of HCV has 5 untranslated region (UTR) which works as an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). The 5 UTR is 324-341 in length and the IRES is considered important for Cap-independent translation of viral RNA[7,8]. This entry site (IRES) leads to the translation of an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a 3010 amino acid poly protein precursor which is ultimately cleaved by host and viral proteases into 10 viral proteins in the order of NH (2) -Core-E1-E2-p7-NS2-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B-COOH (Figure ?(Figure11). According to past research, the structural proteins (Core, E and E2) and the nonstructural proteins (NS3 protease and NS5B RNA dependent RNA polymerase) have been considered the best targets to develop novel molecular inhibitors. Among these proteins, NS3 in association with NS4A has been hugely investigated due to its protease and helicase domains that are important in viral replication[1,10-12]. The life cycle of HCV is illustrated in Figure ?Figure2.2. HCV has six major genotypes with a series of subtypes. In 2012, a new sequence has been found that is being named as subtype 7a. The prevalence of genotype 3a Treosulfan is related to steatosis that leads to liver fibrosis[15,16]. Open in a separate window Figure 1 Hepatitis C virus genome organization. HCV: Hepatitis C virus; IFN: Interferon. Open in a separate window Figure 2 Hepatitis C virus life cycle. To date, many medicinal plants have been tested against HCV and have proved beneficial as antiviral mediators. The reasons to prefer medicinal plants over traditional medicines are their fewer side effects, low cost and multiple target activities. The phytochemicals of the medicinal plants, such as limonoids, alkaloids, lignana, organosulfur, furyl, thiophenes, polylines, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyphenolics, sulphides, saponins, coumarins, chlorophyllins, are considered important due to their efficiency at hampering viral entry, blocking/limiting the RNA/DNA genome replication and their anti-oxidant activity. Currently, there are few antiviral drugs that can Mouse Monoclonal to Strep II tag efficiently work against HCV as most of the antiviral drugs show side effects and many of the viruses acquire resistance against them; thus, there is a strong need to develop antiviral compounds that can suppress HCV without side effects. Therefore, medicinal plants due to their magical powers are being investigated to discover antiviral agents that can efficiently target the entry or replication of HCV virus and are believed to be our future inhibitors for this dreadful disease. CURRENT TREATMENT HCV is a major concern worldwide and clearing it in its early phase to avoid liver cirrhosis Treosulfan and HCC has always been the target for researchers. To date, there is no authenticated vaccine available in the market and current approved treatment (standard of care) is a combination therapy having pegylated interferon alpha (PegIFN-) injections and antiviral nucleoside analogue ribavirin (RBV) used for 24-48 wk depending upon the type of genotype. All the genotypes of HCV show different sustained virological response (SVR) and genotype 1 which is regarded as most problematic genotype shows the clearance of HCV in 50% of the cases. Similarly, genotype 2 infection shows clearance in only 80% of the cases[19-22]. This combination therapy has several considerable side effects such as fever, anemia, flu and depression. Several combinations of IFN are in clinical trials, such as taribavirin which Treosulfan is a prodrug of ribavirin and albinterferon which is the combination of IFN-.