Home » Ca2+Sensitive Protease Modulators » 731 individuals including twin pairs and singletons with lumbar spine BMD assessments were available for genotyping (Table ?(Table3)

731 individuals including twin pairs and singletons with lumbar spine BMD assessments were available for genotyping (Table ?(Table3)

731 individuals including twin pairs and singletons with lumbar spine BMD assessments were available for genotyping (Table ?(Table3).3). and 2.1 (P = 0.018) in the replication sample. Association fine mapping with 80 SNPs located within 50 kilobases of the marker SNP identified a 20 kilobase region of association made up of exon 6 of em PDE4D /em . In a second, family-based replication sample with a preponderance of females with low BMD, rs1498608 showed an opposite relationship with BMD at different sites (p = 0.00044-0.09). We also replicated the previously reported association of the Ser37Ala polymorphism in em BMP2 /em , known to interact biologically with PDE4D, with BMD. Conclusion This study indicates that variants in the gene encoding PDE4D account for some of the genetic contribution to bone mineral density variation in humans. The contrasting results from different samples indicate that the effect may be context-dependent. PDE4 inhibitors have been shown to increase bone mass in normal and osteopenic mice, but up until now there have been no reports implicating any member of the em PDE4 /em gene family in human osteoporosis. Background The postmenopausal loss of bone mass and subsequent increased risk of low-energy (fragility) fractures is an important public health problem, especially in countries with a high proportion of elderly individuals. More than 1 million fragility fractures, primarily in postmenopausal women, occur each year in the US. The annual direct medical costs exceed US$10 billion [1]. Bone mineral density (BMD) measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has been widely used to estimate the risk of fracture in epidemiological studies and to study treatment effects of antiresorptive brokers in clinical trials. There are several well documented environmental and biological factors known to influence bone mineral density and the risk of fragility fractures including female gender, age, previous fragility fracture, low body weight, reduced lifetime exposure to estrogen, low calcium intake, physical inactivity, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption [2-5]. There is also a strong genetic component to interindividual BMD variability, with heritability estimates ranging from 0.46 to 0.84 at different body sites [6-8]. Numerous candidate genes have been tested for association to BMD and fragility fractures. A polymorphism in a transcription factor-binding site of the collagen 1A1 ( em COL1A1 /em ) gene has shown one of the most consistent associations to osteoporosis, even if the association is generally weak for BMD and varies between populations [9-11]. Linkage studies have also been performed with the aim of locating genetic loci YM348 influencing BMD variation [12-19]. So far, the genes responsible for the resulting linkage peaks have not been identified. Recently, linkage of a compound osteoporosis phenotype was reported to chromosome 20p12. Subsequent positional cloning efforts YM348 implicated em BMP2 /em , the gene encoding for bone morphogenetic YM348 protein 2, as responsible for Egfr the linkage [20]. Nevertheless, the associations reported thus far that have been independently validated account for only a small portion of the genetic contribution to BMD and osteoporosis. Studies that rely on direct association approaches based on linkage disequilibrium within populations are expected to have greater statistical power and be more feasible to implement than traditional linkage studies to identify common variations that influence common, complex traits such as osteoporosis [21]. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of whole-genome association methods to identify YM348 genes that are involved in complex trait variation. To date, however, few such large-scale studies have been reported. In an effort to identify genes and variants that influence risk of osteoporosis, we conducted a large-scale study using more than 25,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within approximately 16,000 genes in DNA pools of unrelated females at the extremes of the lumbar spine bone mineral density distribution. A number of intriguing associations identified in this study are currently being scrutinized in further detail. In this paper we report the most advanced of these, which is the association of a variation in em PDE4D /em , the gene encoding cyclic AMP-dependent phosphodiesterase 4D, with lumbar spine BMD. PDE4D selective inhibitors have been shown to promote osteoblast differentiation in progenitor cells [22] and to increase bone mass by promoting bone formation in normal mice [23] but the gene has not until now.